Cellobiose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.

Hydroxide ion (OH⁻)

A compound ion formed when a water molecule releases a proton.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions - Mechanical wing (1493–1495)

The mechanical wing is one of the masterpieces among Leonardo's sketches related to aviation.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions - Aerial screw (around 1489)

The polymath thought that if a screw-like structure can rotate fast enough, it will 'drill' into the air and fly.

Trans-2-butene (C₄H₈)

A colorless, heavier-than-air gas. Its geometric isomer is cis-2-butene.

Water (H₂O)

Water is a very stable compound of hydrogen and oxygen, vital for all known forms of life. In nature it occurs in liquid, solid and gaseous state.

Ammonia (NH₃)

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Its solution in water is called ammonium hydroxide or household ammonia.

Oleic acid (cis-octadec-9-enoic acid) (C₁₇H₃₃COOH)

An unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. The molecule contains double bond in cis orientation.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions - Swing bridge (1487-1489)

Leonardo's creative legacy also includes several projects related to bridges. This unusual swing bridge allowed for undisturbed water traffic.

Permanganate ion (MnO₄⁻)

Potassium permanganate is used as a disinfectant.

Alpha-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.

Sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄)

A colorless, viscous liquid, a highly corrosive, strong acid used in several industrial processes.

Sulfate ion (SO₄²⁻)

A compound ion produced when sulfuric acid releases a proton.

Silver iodide (AgI)

A light yellow compound formed in the reaction of silver nitrate and potassium iodide.

Carbamide (urea) (CO(NH₂)₂)

An organic compound in the urine of mammals, used in the production of fertilizers as a source of nitrogen.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions - Siege engines

Leonardo was not only a master artist, but also an accomplished military engineer.

Benzene (C₆H₆)

Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.

Hydronium ion (H₃O⁺)

The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Common salt (or table salt) is one of the most important sodium compounds, indispensable for living organisms.

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