Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes atmospheric circulation which is affected by a number of factors, including...

Phase transitions

A phase transition is the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system reduces emission.

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for life on Earth.

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.

Soap

Fatty acid molecules consist of a polar head and a non-polar tail, therefore they are suitable for removing fat stains.

Nitrous acid (HNO₂)

One of the oxoacids of nitrogen. Colorless, moderate acid with a pungent odor, that exists only in aqueous solution.

Phosphorus pentoxide (P₂O₅)

A compound formed as white smoke during the combustion of phosphorus.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Limestone is a widely and diversely used material.

Sulfurous acid (H₂SO₃)

Colorless, moderate acid, only known in aqueous solution.

Polymerization of ethene

Polymerized ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

House without carbon-dioxide emission

The design and structure of modern houses play an important role in environmental protection.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

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