Scots pine

Scots pine

One of the most common tree of the pine family, native to Eurasia.

Biology

Keywords

Scots pine, pine, coniferous forest, gymnosperm, needle, evergreen, cone, Pinales, resin, forest, carpel, perennial, woody, native, Eurasia, tree, plant, leaf, biology

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Scots pine

  • Scots pine

The Scots pine is a light-demanding pioneer species - that is, it is one of the first species that colonize damaged ecosystems, as it can tolerate unfavorable conditions. It is also often used to stabilize drifting sand. In the wild, it favors acidic soil and it grows mostly on rocky hillsides, steep river banks, hills, mountains, and other extreme habitats.

Pine timber is one of the strongest light timber and it is widely used in the construction and furniture industries.

The resin content of Scots pine wood can be distilled into an essential oil.

Development

  • development of the Scots Pine - Young trees have a conical foliage. The foliage of mature trees becomes flattened at the top. Under appropriate conditions, Scots pine trees can reach a height of 20-35 meters (65.6-114.8 feet)
  • 20-35 m (65.6-114.8 ft)

Scots pine trees grow relatively fast, but the pace of growth depends on environmental conditions. Under appropriate conditions, Scots pine trees can reach a height of 35 meters (114.8 feet) by the time they are 100 years old. Mature trees usually lose their lower branches and their foliage becomes flattened at the top.

Anatomy

  • loose foliage - It is conical when the tree is young, later it becomes flattened.
  • bark - It is grayish brown on the lower the trunk and orange-red on the upper trunk and on the branches.
  • straight trunk
  • roots
  • needles - They are bluish green and grow in pairs.

The trunk is straight, with branches arranged in pseudo-whorls, tight spirals that appear like rings of branches around the trunk.

Needles grow in pairs on the short shoots. The base of the needles is covered with a membrane. Fallen pine needles form a slowly decomposing litter layer on the forest floor.

Like other gymnosperms, Scots pines have taproot systems.

Carpel

  • ovule - Unlike in angiosperms, it is not surrounded by the carpel, only held by it.
  • winged pine seed - It develops from the ovule once it is fertilized. The wings facilitate the spread of the pine seeds.
  • 1-year-old carpel
  • 2-year-old carpel

Pines seeds become fully developed during the fall after pollination takes place. The seeds remain in the cone during the winter; they are released only in the spring, when the seed cone opens.

Since Scots pine seeds develop on the surface of the scale-like carpels, this species is a gymnosperm. Gymnosperm carpels do not produce fruits.

Cone

  • pollen cone (♂) - Pollen is produced on the scale-like modified leaves of the male cone. Pollen grains are transported to the ovulate cone by the wind, there they fertilize the ovules.
  • seed cones (♀) - They are initially green, later they become brown and woody. Some of the scales are carpels, which hold the ovules.

Scots pine is a monoecious species, i.e. both the female and male reproductive organs (cones) are found on the same plant. The female cones, called seed cones or ovulate cones produce ovules, while male cones produce pollen.

Pollination takes place early summer, when the temperature is high enough.

Animation

  • Scots pine
  • loose foliage - It is conical when the tree is young, later it becomes flattened.
  • bark - It is grayish brown on the lower the trunk and orange-red on the upper trunk and on the branches.
  • straight trunk
  • roots
  • needles - They are bluish green and grow in pairs.
  • development of the Scots Pine - Young trees have a conical foliage. The foliage of mature trees becomes flattened at the top. Under appropriate conditions, Scots pine trees can reach a height of 20-35 meters (65.6-114.8 feet)
  • 20-35 m (65.6-114.8 ft)
  • pollen cone (♂) - Pollen is produced on the scale-like modified leaves of the male cone. Pollen grains are transported to the ovulate cone by the wind, there they fertilize the ovules.
  • seed cones (♀) - They are initially green, later they become brown and woody. Some of the scales are carpels, which hold the ovules.
  • ovule - Unlike in angiosperms, it is not surrounded by the carpel, only held by it.
  • winged pine seed - It develops from the ovule once it is fertilized. The wings facilitate the spread of the pine seeds.
  • 1-year-old carpel
  • 2-year-old carpel

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