Benzene (C₆H₆)

Benzene (C₆H₆)

Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.

Chemistry

Keywords

benzene, benzene molecule, aromatic hydrocarbon, arenes, single bond, multiple bond, delocalised bond, Kekulé, coal tar, sigma bond, pi-bond, aromatic ring, organic chemistry, hydrocarbon, molecule, chemistry

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Scenes

Benzene C₆H₆

Information

Molar mass: 78.11 g/mol

Melting point: 5.5 °C (41.9 °F)

Boiling point: 80.1 °C (176.18 °F)

Heat of combustion: -3,267.6 kJ/mol

Density: 0.8736 g/cm³ (0.0315 lb/in³)

Properties

The benzene molecule contains a cyclically delocalized, stable pi-electron system (called a conjugated system). Benzene is a colorless, toxic liquid, with a strong smell. It evaporates rapidly and sublimates when heated.

It dissolves well in organic solvents and is itself a good solvent. It is less dense than water, so it floats on the surface of water. Due to its high degree of unsaturation, benzene burns with a sooty flame and its special structure causes it to enter into a substitution reaction with bromide. Treating benzene with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid results in nitrobenzene.

Occurrence and production

Benzene was formerly produced from coal tar, today its production is based on mineral oil.

Uses

Benzene is used in the production of dyes, plastics, detergents, medicines and explosives.

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Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Phenol (C₆H₅OH)

The simplest of the aromatic hydroxy compounds.

Aniline (C₆H₅NH₂)

The simplest aromatic amine. Its scientific name is phenylamine.

Benzoic acid (C₆H₅COOH)

The simplest of the aromatic carboxylic acids.

Styrene (vinyl benzene) (C₈H₈)

A colorless liquid with an odor similar to benzene. The monomer of polystyrene.

Ethane (C₂H₆)

The second member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.

Ethene (ethylene) (C₂H₄)

The first member in the homologous series of 1-alkenes.

Ethyne (acetylene) (C₂H₂)

The first member of the homologous series of alkyne hydrocarbons.

Naphtalene (C₁₀H₈)

The simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Pyridine (C₅H₅N)

A basic heterocyclic organic compound; a colorless, pungent toxic liquid.

Pyrimidine (C₄H₄N₂)

A heterocyclic organic compound, its derivatives are thymine, cytosine and uracil.

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