Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.
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Molar mass: 78.11 g/mol
Melting point: 5.5 °C (41.9 °F)
Boiling point: 80.1 °C (176.18 °F)
Heat of combustion: -3,267.6 kJ/mol
Density: 0.8736 g/cm³ (0.0315 lb/in³)
The benzene molecule contains a cyclically delocalized, stable pi-electron system (called a conjugated system). Benzene is a colorless, toxic liquid, with a strong smell. It evaporates rapidly and sublimates when heated.
It dissolves well in organic solvents and is itself a good solvent. It is less dense than water, so it floats on the surface of water. Due to its high degree of unsaturation, benzene burns with a sooty flame and its special structure causes it to enter into a substitution reaction with bromide. Treating benzene with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid results in nitrobenzene.
Occurrence and production
Benzene was formerly produced from coal tar, today its production is based on mineral oil.
Benzene is used in the production of dyes, plastics, detergents, medicines and explosives.
In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.
The simplest of the aromatic hydroxy compounds.
The simplest aromatic amine. Its scientific name is phenylamine.
The simplest of the aromatic carboxylic acids.
A colorless liquid with an odor similar to benzene. The monomer of polystyrene.
The second member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.
The first member in the homologous series of 1-alkenes.
The first member of the homologous series of alkyne hydrocarbons.
The simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
A basic heterocyclic organic compound; a colorless, pungent toxic liquid.
A heterocyclic organic compound, its derivatives are thymine, cytosine and uracil.