System of public utilities
System that satisfies consumers’ demands of water supply, wastewater disposal, electricity, heat and gas supply and telecommunication.
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Public utility: distribution and collection systems and related facilities that satisfy consumers’ demands for drinking water, wastewater disposal, electricity, heat and gas and telecommunications.
Without the assets of basic infrastructural networks public health in cities with multi-storey residential buildings cannot be maintained. These assets include central water supply, wastewater disposal, drainage and electricity supply.
Facilities of public infrastructure
Production, treatment, preparation and storage of products to be transported by the supply networks.
Pipe and cable networks and their components (structures, equipment, fittings) that distribute the products:
– Trunk pipes: consumers are not directly attached to these;
– Main pipes: direct service of consumers;
– Supply pipes (and the attached measuring devices).
Pipes, equipment and supplies within the buildings or on the sites of consumers.
Phases of operation
1. Preparation of production and service
Usually on one common site or several sites serving a common purpose. In case of water supply:
– collection or extraction of water;
– transport of raw water to treatment plant;
– water treatment according to the standard of quality required by consumers;
– transferring water into the suction basin of the pump houses, the starting points of distribution.
Delivering products to consumers through pipe or cable networks.
To ensure smooth delivery, proper pressure must be maintained; it may be necessary to increase the pressure repeatedly along the network (pumping stations, pressure boosters).
This phase also includes reserve storage to compensate for peak loads.
3. Consumer service
The products are delivered to customers through distribution or supply networks:
– measuring the quantity of consumption;
– invoicing and collecting fees;
– checking and maintenance of consumer equipment.
- electric cable
- telecommunication cable
- sewage pipe
- city sewer
- district heating pipe
- water pipe
- gas pipe
The term public utility refers to distribution and collection systems and related facilities that satisfy consumers’ demands for drinking water, wastewater disposal, electricity, heat and gas and telecommunications.
Most pipe and conduit networks run underground, except for electric cables, which usually run above ground, supported by power poles. In big cities however electric cables can also run underground.
Since the different types of utility pipes and conduits interact, their order is important.
Sewer pipes are laid first. To ensure the conveyance of wastewater to a wastewater treatment plant, sewer pipes are usually built on a slight slope. Sewage from residences and storm water runoff can be carried either together or in separate pipes.
Pipes for drinking water and district heating are installed on top of sewer pipes. High pressure water pipes ensure that water is also supplied to higher altitude areas.
In district heating, housing estates are heated centrally. For this purpose, the water is heated in a power plant and carried through the pipes to the housing estates.
Gas pipes and various cables are installed at the top. Used for cooking and heating, gas is carried to buildings through gas pipes.
Power lines are categorised into high, medium and low voltage electricity lines, as well as telecommunication cables.
Basic utilities include water and electricity supply as well as wastewater and storm water drainage systems. In houses, cables and pipes are installed according to strict rules.
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