Mesopotamian inventions (3rd millennium BC)

Mesopotamian inventions (3rd millennium BC)

These tools, revolutionary even in their simplicity, are still in use today.



Mesopotamian inventions, Mesopotamia, wheel, fired clay brick, plough, Mesopotamian wagon, brick kiln, sowing plow, agriculture, invention, technology, civilisation, cart, animal husbandry, Fertile Crescent, antiquity, ancient

Related items



  • brick kiln
  • animal-drawn plough
  • Mesopotamian wagon

Fired brick

Mesopotamian wagon

Symmetric sowing plough

Parts of a wagon

  • yoke
  • oxen
  • draw bar
  • solid wheel
  • rigid axle
  • sprag

Parts of a plough

  • yoke
  • beam
  • coulter
  • sowing funnel
  • sole
  • horn



Humanity owes a great deal to ancient civilisations; our knowledge is based on the knowledge of these early cultures. The Ancient world was the birthplace of many inventions that are indispensable today. A number of these inventions were made in Ancient Mesopotamia.

Clay bricks had already been used in the neolithic, but it was the Mesopotamians, around 3000 BC, who first used fired clay to construct their buildings. Firing resulted in a much more resistant building material.

The invention of the wheel was also a revolutionary change. According to historical sources, Mesopotamians already used carts with rigid axles and solid wheels in the 4th millennium BC. This tool was inspired by the emergence of a settled lifestyle, and it had an enormous effect on the development of countless activities.

The appearance of the animal-drawn plough brought enormous changes in agriculture. With this tool, crops could be planted more quickly and efficiently than ever before. Ploughs at this time were made of wood and had a symmetrical structure.

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