Archaeological excavation (pit house)

Archaeological excavation (pit house)

Large construction sites provide archaeologists searching for artefacts with a great deal of work.



archaeology, Archaeological excavation, archaeologist, deposit, excavation, tomb, reconstruction, culture, church, layer

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Archaeological site

  • field - On field surveys, archaeologists find and explore excavation sites and collect artefacts from the surface.
  • patch - Probable site of a house or grave.
  • hill - Probable site of a church.

Soil removal

  • machines
  • soil
  • piles of soil
  • old ground level - The top layer of soil is removed by machines, the excavation is then continued with hand tools.


  • archaeologist
  • spirit level
  • measuring rod
  • shovel
  • trowel
  • brush
  • wheelbarrow
  • bowl
  • bucket
  • pit house

Tomb excavation

  • archaeologist
  • spirit level
  • shovel
  • trowel
  • brush
  • bucket
  • skeleton
  • grave




  • pit house
  • church


Archaeologists study the past of civilisations through artefacts. Their work can be divided into four major phases.

First they look for areas where artefacts can be found underground (or under water). This is not always simple. Differences in the colour of the ground as seen from above, small pieces of artefacts that are found on the ground, and knowledge of the age in question may also help to locate sites. Major construction sites also provide archaeologists with explorable areas.

In the second phase the upper layers of soil are removed, first with machines then with hand tools. Once removed, the soil is also carefully examined. In the final stage of this phase, it is carefully analysed with small brushes, to avoid causing damage.

In the third phase archaeologists process the findings. They meticulously and accurately document each artefact together with their original location within the site. They also take notes and photographs and make drawings. Experts attempt to reconstruct the original condition of the site and the cultural setting of the inhabitants. Another interesting part of archaeological work is done by restorers and anthropologists. The former bring artefacts back to their original condition, while the latter examine human bones found at the sites.

In the final phase the excavated and restored artefacts are shown to the public in museums.

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