Anatomy of the spinal cord

Anatomy of the spinal cord

The spinal cord is the part of the central nervous system running inside the spinal column from which spinal nerves branch out.

Biology

Keywords

spinal cord, nervous system, prolapsed disc, spinal nerve, grey matter, white matter, central canal, motoneuron, ganglion, spine, vertebra, cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebra, lumbar vertebra, brain, cranial nerve, meninx, neuron, reflex, cerebrospinal fluid, arachnoid mater, lumbar puncture, nerve, human, biology

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The reflex triggered by the stretching of the thigh extensor muscle is the patellar reflex.

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Nervous system

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and ganglia.

Parts of the human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum, which is divided into lobes.

The human brain

The main parts of the human brain are the brain stem, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the cerebrum.

Bones of the lower limbs

Bones of the lower limbs are connected to the trunk by the pelvis.

Bones of the upper limbs

Bones of the upper limbs form the pectoral girdle and the arms.

Circulatory system

Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Cortical organisation of speech

Producing speech requires the synchronised operation of several cortical centres.

Human body (male)

This animation introduces the most important organ systems of the human body.

Knee joint

The knee joint is made up by the femur, the tibia and the kneecap.

Medical conditions of the spine

Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a lateral deviation.

Muscle tissues

The three types of muscle found in the human body are the smooth, the striated and the cardiac muscle.

Neurons, nervous tissue

Neurons are cells specialised for transmitting electric signals.

Synaptic transmission

Neurons transmit electrical signals via chemical and electrical synapses.

The adrenal glands

The adrenal glands are responsible for maintaining homeostasis and producing a rapid response in stressful situations.

The ear and the mechanism of hearing

The ear converts the vibrations of air into electric signals which are then processed by the brain.

The heart

The heart is the central pump of the cardiovascular system beating several billion times over our lifetime.

The life cycle of vertebrates

The life cycle of vertebrates starts with the production of the reproductive cells of an individual and ends with the production of the reproductive cells...

The skull and the spine

The two main parts of the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord are protected by the skull and the spinal column.

The ventricular system and the main brain regions

This animation demonstrates the internal structure of the brain.

Types of bone articulations

Human bones are joined together by cartilaginous or synovial joints, sutures or they can fuse together.

Vertebrate brain evolution

During the evolution of vertebrates the relative development of brain areas has changed.

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